Breast cancer has become the fourth most common cause of cancer death among people in recent years, and it is the most common invasive cancer in women. The main cause of breast cancer is long-term estrogen stimulation. The earlier the menstrual period stops, the later the menstruation rate increases. Other risk factors are genetic and familial factors. Patients with breast cancer before the age of 30 or both sides are more likely to be genetically inherited, and the incidence of female relatives is extremely high. If a mother or sister has a family history of breast cancer, the chance of breast cancer is only 1.5 to 3 times higher than usual. In terms of diet, it is generally believed that alcohol consumption and fat intake will increase the incidence, but it is related to the type of fat. The compound unsaturated fatty acids in fish oil may reduce the risk of breast cancer.
Breast lump is the most common symptom, others have abnormal nipple discharge, breast pain and so on. But many breast cancers are completely asymptomatic and found during breast screening.
Breast cancer tests include breast palpation, breast ultrasound, and mammography. The most common breast cancer is INFILTRATING DUCTAL CARCINOMA. In recent years, due to the promotion of breast cancer screening, there are more and more zero-stage carcinomas in situ.
The first treatment for breast cancer is usually surgery, which is divided into breast eradication and breast preservation. The next treatments to consider are chemotherapy, radiation therapy and hormone therapy. Radiotherapy for breast cancer patients is used after breast eradication, breast preservation, or when recurrence or metastasis. The purpose is to reduce local recurrence, improve cure rate, save breasts, and improve quality of life.
The purpose of radiotherapy after breast eradication is to reduce local recurrence and improve the cure rate. According to foreign studies, postoperative radiotherapy after eradication can reduce local recurrence by about two-thirds. Radiation therapy after eradication, once a day, 180-200 centigrams each time, a total of 25 times, 5000 CGY. Which breast cancer patients need postoperative radiotherapy after breast eradication? At present, patients in the following conditions are recommended to receive radiotherapy at the General Hospital of the Three Armed Forces:
1. The primary tumor is 5 cm.
2. 4 lymph node metastases.
3. Lymph node metastasis 1-3 + Other poor prognostic factors such as cancer cells in blood vessels or lymph vessels, tumors larger than 3 cm, etc.
4. Primary tumor 3-4.9 cm + other poor prognostic factors such as cancer cells in blood vessels or lymphatic vessels, tumor invasion of skin, etc.
Another use of radiation therapy is to use it in combination with breast preservation surgery. It can remove only tumors, preserve most breast tissues beautifully and psychologically, and the prognosis is as good as eradication. Breast cancer patients undergoing breast preservation surgery are generally indispensable for postoperative radiotherapy.
Chemotherapy is a necessary treatment for many breast cancer patients, and it can also improve the cure rate. According to foreign statistics, 53% of women under the age of 35 receive CMF chemotherapy; 84% of women aged 35-44 will have menopause; 94% of women over 45 will have menopause. And menopause after chemotherapy, 86% of women under 40 years of age can never recover, up to 96% of women over 40 years of age can never recover.
Hormonal therapy is effective in patients with positive receptors (ER, PR) and must be taken for five years. For Her2 / neu patients who are strongly positive, using Herceptin can also improve the treatment effect.